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EMS responses to Lethbridge drug events at highest level since SCS closed

Alberta government data shows that Lethbridge EMS responses in November 2020 were at their highest levels since the SCS closed last summer.

Earlier this week, the Alberta government update the data contained in its Alberta Substance Use Surveillance System.

The online dashboard tracks various metrics related to substance use in the province, including deaths, EMS responses, supervised consumption site usage, and hospitalizations.

The most recent complete data appears to be November 2020, which is 2 months more than was available during the December 2020 update. Although much of it is current only to the third quarter (September)

Since the updated data was available, I thought I’d breakdown stats for Lethbridge (see my previous coverage for Q1 2020, Q2 2020, and Q3 2020).

Deaths

Lethbridge saw 44 substance-related deaths in 2020, as of November (the December update has this number at 46). This is the highest annual number the city has seen since 2016. The next highest was 2018, when the SCS opened; we saw 37 that year.

According to the new system, these deaths include only those certified by the medical examiner. They don’t include “apparent fentanyl deaths”, which are deaths where fentanyl was present in the system of the person who died and “initial circumstances point to a likely drug poisoning death”.

It’s quite possible that Lethbridge has seen even more than 44 deaths related to substance use.

Calgary and Edmonton had, by far, more total deaths this year, putting Lethbridge at the 4th highest number of total deaths related to substance use. Red Deer was third at 51.

However, when we account for population, Lethbridge had the 2nd highest death rate per 100,000 person years of the 7 communities included in the data.

Lethbridge’s 2020 death rate up to November was 48.5, its highest rate since at least 2016. The next highest was in 2018, when it was 37.7 per 100,000. According to the data, Lethbridge had 2 fewer deaths in 2020 than what was reported in the December update and saw no deaths in November. That would be the first time since November 2019 that Lethbridge saw no reported, certified drug deaths.

Red Deer had the highest death rate, at 50.3 per 100,000 person years, followed by Grande Prairie (43.4) and Edmonton (40.3).

Here’s how the deaths break down by substance. Keep in mind that some of the people who died had multiple substances in their system, so these numbers add up to more than 46.

SubstanceDec 2020
update
Feb 2021
update
Non-pharmaceutical opioids4038
Pharmaceutical opioids72
Methamphetamine1820
Cocaine99
Alcohol1011
Benzodiazepines22
Pharmaceutical opioids include drugs such as codeine, hydromorphone, methadone. Non-pharmaceutical opioids include such drugs as fentanyl, carfentanil, heroin, and designer opiates.

The 11 months of 2020 reported so far saw an average of 4.2 deaths per month and a median of 4 deaths per month. Here’s what 2020 looks like compared to other years:

Average
deaths
Median
deaths
# months
0 deaths
20161.5012
20171.7523
20183.0831
20191.751.52
20204.1841
Note: 2020 is still missing data for December.

2020, so far, has been one of only 2 years in the reporting period that has reported substance-related deaths every month except one.

The highest month this year was June, which saw 8 deaths (10 according to the December update). That also happens to be the highest number of deaths in a single month in Lethbridge since at least January 2016 (although July 2018 also saw 8 deaths).

The supervised consumption site operated by Lethbridge ARCHES shut down at the end of August. (See below for more on supervised consumption data.)

In the 3 months following the SCS closure, Lethbridge saw 6 deaths. Since 2016, there has been only 1 year where at least one of those months saw 3 or more deaths: October 2018 saw 3 deaths. So, even with the previous SCS closed, we’re seeing more deaths for this time of year than normal.

Plus, September and October weren’t even the lowest months of 2020: February and March were, before COVID-19 restrictions drastically reduced SCS utilization. Both had 2 deaths, the lowest number of deaths in a month so far this year.

Finally, in the 3 months following the closure of the SCS (September–November), Lethbridge saw more opioid-related deaths than we saw in the same period in any of the 4 previous years:

SepOctNovTotal
20202305
20191102
20180224
20170123
20161124
48618

Hospitalizations

The new system doesn’t delineate hospitalization data by city, so the following information is based on data for the South Zone at large, which includes Lethbridge, as well as Medicine Hat.

The South Zone had the second highest rate of substance-related emergency department visits in the province during the third quarter, at 2,143 per 100,000. The morth Zone had the highest, at 2,322 per 100,000.

July through September this year, the South Zone saw its third highest rate of substance-related ER visits of any quarter in the last 5 years.

As far as general hospitalization goes, the South Zone had the highest hospitalization rate in the province, at 773 per 100,000. The next highest was the North Zone, at 717.

The third quarter hospitalization rate for 2020 was the highest hospitalization rate of any quarter in the entire reporting period. The next highest quarter was the second quarter of 2016—2 years before the Lethbridge SCS opened—when the South Zone saw 663 per 100,000 substance-related hospitalizations.

The South Zone hospitalization rate for the third quarter had increased to 773 from 706 in the second quarter, which itself was higher than the rate of 606 reported in the first quarter of this year.

EMS responses

Lethbridge saw 3,272 EMS responses to opioid-related events in 2020 to date. This is higher than the 2,361 we saw in 2019, but not as high as the 4,114 we saw in 2018. We saw a drop of 42.6% in EMS responses in 2019 compared to 2018, but an increase of 38.6% in EMS responses so far for 2020 compared to 2019.

Lethbridge had the highest EMS response rate in the province in this year’s third quarter. Local EMS responded to 452 opioid-related events per 100,000 between July and September 2020. The next highest community was Edmonton, at 243.

This was also Lethbridge’s second highest quarter during the 5-year reporting period. The only quarter higher was the second quarter of 2018, when it was at a rate of 461 EMS responses per 100,000.

This past July was the month Lethbridge saw the highest EMS response rate since 2016: 691. EMS responses have dropped since then, with August at 400, September at 267, and October at 206. The numbers increases slightly in November to 291.

Lethbridge’s average EMS response rate this year was 297.5 per month. Its median rate was 267. The average last year was 196.8 per month and the median was 181 per month. In 2018, the average was 342.8 and the median was 343.

Clearly, this year had a lot more responses, but not as many as 2018.

Since the SCS closed down, Lethbridge has seen fewer EMS responses: 267 in September, 206 in October, and 291 in November. However, EMS responses are higher than they were during the first 4 months of the year, which varied between 97 and 194.

Supervised consumption

Supervised consumption in Lethbridge was down significantly in the third quarter of this year.

The Lethbridge SCS saw 5,640 visits in the third quarter from 237 unique visitors: a rate of 23.8 visits per visitor in the quarter, or an average of 7.9 visits per visitor per month.

The Lethbridge Overdose Prevention Site reported 1,309 visits in the same quarter, from 119 unique visitors: a rate of 11 visits per visitor. It opened on 17 August 2020, which gives it a monthly visit rate of about 7.3 per visitor.

The SCS saw 12,101 visits in the second quarter of 2020 and 58,719 visits in the first, from 255 and 439 visitors, respectively. Compare these numbers to the other quarters it was operational.

VisitsVisitorsQuarter rateMonthly rate
Q1 20182,37523710.03.3
Q2 201824,46438064.421.5
Q3 201842,45044795.031.7
Q4 201856,562440128.642.9
Q1 201960,260418144.248.1
Q2 201959,901431139.046.3
Q3 201959,781452132.344.1
Q4 201966,168446148.449.5
Q1 202058,719439133.844.6
Q2 202012,10125547.515.8
Q3 20205,60423723.611.8

We see that during 2019 and the first quarter of 2020, visits per visitor rate was fairly consistent, varying between 130 and 145 visits per person per quarter, or 45–50 visits per month. That’s only 1–2 times per day per person.

Even though the quarterly rate was a bit lower in the last quarter of 2018, the monthly rate was similar. The first 3 quarters of 2018 were pretty low, which makes sense, given that the SCS operated for only a month in the first quarter, and it would’ve taken some time for usage to increase as people come to trust the service.

What I do find interesting is the numbers for the second and third quarters of this year.

We already knew that the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions seriously reduced the number of visits to the SCS, which we can see in the visits column and in the visitor column. However, it wasn’t just the number of visits and visitors that dropped during that period. The number of visits per visitor dropped as well.

The SCS went from a consistent visits per visitor rate of 130–145 per quarter (45–50 per month) during 2019 and beginning of 2020 to a rate of only 47.5 in the second quarter. During the lockdown, visitors were visiting the SCS at 35.5% the rate they did prior to the lockdown.

And the visit per visitor rate dropped even more in the third quarter this year, which is the quarter when the provincial government announced they were defunding the SCS. It’s also the quarter when the SCS closed.

The visit per visitor rate in the final quarter of the SCS being opened was half that of the previous quarter and only 17.6% that of the first quarter of 2020.

So, not only were the number of visits and visitors down at the SCS for most of 2020, but how often the average visitor used the SCS was also down.

SCS usage numbers remain unchanged from the December 2020 update.

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By Kim Siever

I live in Lethbridge with my spouse and 4 of our 6 children. I’m a writer, focusing on political news, social issues, and the occasional poem. My politics are radically left. I am a political economy student at the University of Athabasca, working on my second undergrad degree.

I’m also dichotomally Mormon. And I’m a functional vegetarian: I have a blog post about that somewhere around here. My pronouns are he/him, and I’m queer.

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